The Knowledge About The Material In The Rendering

In the early days of learning 3D max to produce interior renderings, many people will be more or less exposed to rendering. When it comes to rendering, it will involve “material” and “lighting”. Many people don’t understand “material”. The light is to be thorough, and the root cause of this problem is that there is no special item to learn the relevant material knowledge. In this article, the material in the renderings, you have to understand the content.
Material, we can simply understand what the object looks like, in the rendering of the effect can be subdivided into color, texture, smoothness, transparency, reflectivity, refractive index, luminosity, etc. These can be collectively referred to as the visual properties of their surface.

1. Color Mapping
Color refers to the color of an object in our naked eyes, red or yellow or other colors.
2. Texture Mapping
Texture refers to the texture, pattern, etc. of the object. Here, you need to pay attention to a knowledge point. The "diffuse reflection" in the renderer is composed of texture and color. The reason is because it can pass Reflect the "function" to control the "color" and "texture" aspects.

3.Bump mapping
"Smoothness" in the Corona renderer or Vray renderer and even in other third-party rendering plug-ins, it means "gloss", which is an important parameter for determining whether a substance is rough or not, and "smoothness" It also indirectly affects the highlight range.
4. Reflection mapping
The percentage of radiant energy reflected by an object, which we call "reflectivity", the reflectivity of different objects is also different, and the range of reflectivity is always less than or equal to 1.0, so readers are using the Corona renderer. At the time, you will find that the level of reflection intensity in the performance of CoronaMTL cannot be adjusted beyond 1.0. The reflectivity can be used to judge the nature of the object, whether it is metal or plastic.

5. Translucent texture
"Transparency" is a numerical value commonly used for the identification of crystals. "Transparency" is divided into three levels: transparent, translucent, and opaque. Here, CoronaMTL, the "standard material" of the Corona renderer, is used as an example. "The "translucent" and "transparency" are in two or two different positions, and the adjustment of "translucent" and "transparency" in the "standard material" is identified by the naked eye, so When setting and adjusting the material properties of this aspect, it is very important to find a good effect reference. Only in this way can it be closer to the real effect. 6. Refraction Maps
Refractive index refers to the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a material. The higher the refractive index of a material, the stronger the refractive index, and the higher the refractive index, the perceived feeling is the thickness. The reduction, so the refractive index can also affect the visual thickness of certain materials, such as: glass.

7. Emissive
"Luminance" refers to light intensity in reality, and the "luminance" I want to say is the self-illumination in the material properties. Self-illumination can also be used as a light, but the diffusion effect of the light is not as good as the real light. Therefore, it can only be used as an indirect auxiliary light source.
We have sorted out here, the properties of the material in the renderings, of course, this kind of mixed, some real-life pointing, all the material adjustment and setting is not difficult to understand is inseparable from certain knowledge theory, right The observation and in-depth exploration of things is the key. Finally, I hope that my article can help you to further understand the material.

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3ds Max Tutorials: The Production and Sharing of "Sci-Fi Guns"(3)
3ds Max Tutorials: The Production and Sharing of "Sci-Fi Guns"(3)
The best render farm, Fox Renderfarm still shares with you the production of the work "Sci-Fi Guns" which made with software 3ds Max and Substance Painter 2019 from 3d artist Zikai Wu. And this is part three of the sharing. Texturing Next, start the texture production. First, divide the whole into several large layers, and then create a selection area based on the id map made before. First, create a layer group and add a color selection mask. Then make the texture of each part in each layer group. When making textures, my production process is to pave the color first, and then add details. First, give a basic color, then copy the layer to make the darker part, add Dirt generator to this layer, if the effect does not meet your requirements, you can modify the generator parameters and add a brush tool to draw the part you want The effect can be. I usually add the Edge generator to the bright edges to increase the volume and make the overall effect clear. For example, small white particles on part of the surface: first create a new filling layer, add a black mask to the layer, add a filling layer to the mask, then find the picture you want in the grayscale material library and drop it on top, modify the parameters to Control the particle effect. After the texture is finished, I will create a new layer on the top and add sharpening to enhance the clarity of the details. For the gun, I used some glow textures and halo effects. These halos used some basic layers, and then used a mask to draw the shape, leaving only the Emiss self-illumination, and then changed it to blue. Then duplicate this layer, and add a Blur filter on the mask, modify the blur intensity to achieve the halo effect. Other parts of the texture also use this method, and the texture is exported after production. When exporting textures, you need to pay attention to texture size, texture location, channel, and format. Rendering After the texture is produced and exported, it enters the rendering stage. We also need to export the environment map used in Substance Painter to MarmosetToolbag 3 for use. Import the low polygon and add the MarmosetToolbag 3 shader, paste the exported texture according to the channel, pay attention to the name of each channel. You need to flip the Y-axis on the normal channel, just click it. Because this also has an emissive map, you need to open the emissive channel in MarmosetToolbag 3. After the texture is the lighting, the lighting method: one main light source (warmer), one or two auxiliary lights. (Colder). The main light source is located 45 degrees above the front, and the auxiliary light is located on the side and back, which is mainly used to illuminate the dark parts and express silhouette contours. After all the settings are adjusted, you can render. Below is the final rendering effect: The above is the whole process of making this gun. In production, I keep trying to learn and find the most suitable way. I hope this tutorial can be of some help to you.
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2021-01-19
3ds Max Tutorials: The Production and Sharing of "Sci-Fi Guns"(2)
3ds Max Tutorials: The Production and Sharing of "Sci-Fi Guns"(2)
The best render farm, Fox Renderfarm shares with you the production of a work "Sci-Fi Guns" which made with software 3ds Max and Substance Painter 2019 from 3d artist Zikai Wu. And this is part two of the sharing. Unwrapping UV After the low-variability model is made, it is the job of splitting the UV. Before splitting the UV, you need to distinguish the smooth group first. My distinguishing standard is: the angle greater than 90 degrees is not separated, and the uniform smooth group is less than or equal to 90 degrees. Separate. Then there will be some large black parts after separation, which can be separated separately. When splitting the UV, first use the built-in tools to tile according to the smooth group, and then manually adjust some more complicated structures. When placing the UV in a straight line, try to keep it as straight as possible to facilitate the overall placement. The second is the allocation of UV space. The more important components will occupy a larger space, and the space utilization rate of UV should be maximized. Because most of this gun is symmetrical, half of the UV overlaps. Normal map Here is the use of Substance Painter for baking. Before baking the Normal map, the high polygons and low polygons must be matched first. The edges of the model must be matched. The second is model naming, for example, the low polygon qiang01_low, the high polygon is qiang01_high. The low polygon export format is fixed. What is worth noting here is the export of high polygons. If you use one time to export all models, it will take a long time. And there may be some small problems when baking the Normal map, and then you have to go back to 3DSMAX to modify and re-export the entire model, which will take a lot of time. After a test, I will split the model into several parts and export them separately for easy modification. When you are ready for these tasks, start to use Substance Painter to bake textures, and use the PBR production process, import high polygons, set the parameters, select the matching method as naming, and bake a vertical normal first. The effect of the vertical normal baking is that the internal structure is clear, the small details such as screws are not offset, but there will be some defects in the edge, so it is necessary to bake an average normal to combine the two normals to retain their respective advantages, namely Keep the edges of the average normal inside the vertical normal. Then you need to re-import this normal into Substance Painter for use, and you need to check again for any problems for the first time. For small flaws like this kind of edge, you need to enter Substance Painter again to modify the normal edge. After the normal problem is solved, we will bake the id map. To bake the id map, you need to select this option, based on the texture color. The main reason is that I used high polygon layers to give textures of different colors in 3DSmax. Then you can bake other remaining textures after you get the normals and id.
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2021-01-15
3ds Max Tutorials: The Production and Sharing of "Sci-Fi Guns"(1)
3ds Max Tutorials: The Production and Sharing of "Sci-Fi Guns"(1)
The best 3ds Max render farm, Fox Renderfarm will share with you the production of a work "Sci-Fi Guns" which made with software 3ds Max and Substance Painter 2019 from 3d artist Zikai Wu. And this is part one of the sharing. In the tutorial, he explained and showed in detail how to make high and low models in 3ds Max 2018, baking method of normal map and ID map, the texture map made by Substance Paint, and render the final effect in Marmoset Toolbag 3. Let me show you the original concept map first, because its color matching and style are very beautiful, which is why I wanted to make it a 3D version at first sight. The overall style is distinguished, with rich details. Modeling Because the concept map of this gun has only one front view, the side and back parts need us to find more references or use our imagination. When making, you can import the concept map into 3ds Max 2018 as a background reference, which can help us make the shape of the gun more accurate in the production, especially in some corners and structures. In order to make the model more similar to the concept map, I used Line to create the model based on the outline of the concept map. After the shape of the gun is determined, the details can be continuously added on this basis to optimize the proportion. When making some bumps on the gun body, I used some basic 3ds Max tools to squeeze and push and pull the model. The disadvantage of this production method is that the lines will be messy and more. Then, on the suggestion of a friend, I separated the details from the surface, but the details on the surface, and later put the normal map on the model by baking. This way can also ensure that the lines of the model are kept as simple and tidy as possible. The model in this case is a hard surface model, so when making, adjust all the lines and add a smooth group. First, all models are distinguished according to similarities, and then the Chamfer function is added, and lines are added according to the smooth group. Then add turbos smooth on this basis to check the model. If the corners are deformed by pulling, or other problems occur, you need to go back to the bottom layer and distinguish the smooth group. If there is no change, you need to add it to the Chamfer command Edit Poly modify and adjust the corner line. It should be noted that after adding this command, you can't just go back to the first level to modify, because I added this command last. After modifying the model with a high face count, some checks are needed. For example, the position of the seams between the components, check the fit to see if the connection is better. When making a low-polygon model, you directly use the plug-in to reduce the lines of the high-poly model. The low-polygon model has strict requirements on the number of faces, especially for the use of lines, only the places that are as useful as possible are reserved, and the extra places are deleted. Try to keep the straight line of the model as straight as possible, and the overall look is simple and smooth. When making a low-polygon model, you directly use the plug-in to reduce the lines of the high-poly model. The low-polygon model has strict requirements on the number of faces, especially for the use of lines, only the places that are as useful as possible are reserved, and the extra places are deleted. Try to keep the straight line of the model as straight as possible, and the overall look is simple and smooth.
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2021-01-13
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