Disney's Twelve Basic Principles Of Animation

In the early days of hand-drawn 2D animation, the top animators from Disney, Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas, summed up the basic principles of the twelve animations. In 1981, "The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation" was published. These twelve animation principles, the rules developed by two-dimensional animation, can also be applied to the production of 3D animation, and also the 3D animators. The necessary foundations are as follows. The following is collected by render farm Fox Renderfarm of these twelve principles.

01.Squash and Stretch
The object receives the force of the squeeze, resulting in an elongated or flattened shape, coupled with exaggerated expression, making the object itself look elastic, quality, and vitality, so it is easier to produce comic changes.
The squeezing and stretching of animations is usually accompanied by Exaggeration, or the rhythm of Timing is used to highlight the weight of the object.
The action of the animated character must allow the viewer to produce expectations. Through the physical performance, or the arrangement of the mirror composition, the audience can predict the next action of the animated character, so that the audience can more easily integrate into the story.
Adding a reverse action strengthens the tension to do the action, which in turn indicates the next action that will occur.
The drama is arranged by the writer and the director, and the animation is also the same. Because all the animations and composition of the animation need to be manually created by the animator, the composition, lens movement, motion, and position in the animation need to be designed and arranged to avoid trivial movement changes that have occurred at the same time. The most important thing is to carefully design each lens and action. After design, not only can the overall feel of the animation be better, but also save a lot of unnecessary modification time.
The character's movements and performances, combined with appropriate lens movements, can effectively convey the character of the character and the message conveyed in the story.
04.Straight-ahead vs. Pose-to-pose
Continuous movements and key movements are two different creative techniques. Continuous action means starting from the first action when doing animation, from the beginning to the last in the order of the action, usually used to make simple animations.
The key action is to decompose a series of animations, first draw the key actions of the entire series of characters, and then add the intermediate excessive movements after the key actions. This is usually used for more complex animations, and it's also easier to control the production time of the entire animation.
05.Follow-through and Overlapping Action
Following the action, the parts of the object are disassembled, and usually the parts without the skeleton are more likely to follow. Such as hair, clothes, animal tails and so on.
The overlapping action is to disassemble the various parts of the movement, and to shift the time of the movement, resulting in the separation and overlapping time and exaggeration changes, which can increase the drama and expressiveness of the animation, and achieve the purpose of attracting the audience more easily. Increased the fun of animation.
06. Slow-in and Slow-out
An action is slower at the beginning and end, and the middle process is faster, because the general action is not constant motion, which is a normal physical phenomenon. When a stationary object starts moving, it will slow down to fast, and the object to be stopped will be fast to slow. If you start or end in a constant speed, you will have an abrupt feeling.
07. Arcs
The movements in the animation, basically in addition to the mechanical movements, almost all the motion lines are in a parabolic way. Whether it is the movement of the body or the attached object, it is drawing a parabola. Therefore, when drawing motion lines, non-mechanical objects should not be completely linear when moving; mechanical objects use harder linear motion, which makes it easier to distinguish between mechanical and non-mechanical objects. It also enhances the personality of these two completely different objects.
08. Secondary Action
The subtle movements attached to the main movements, although they are relatively small movements, actually have the finishing touch. The secondary action is not an unimportant action, but the key to strengthening the main action, which not only makes the character more vivid and real, but also makes the character have a sense of life.
When the character is performing the main action, some accessories attached to the character, or parts such as hair and tail, will append the main action effect with the attached action.
The soul of animation is the movement of objects and characters, and the key to controlling movement is the rhythm and weight of movement. The rhythm of the action is the speed of the speed. Too fast or too slow will make the action look unnatural, and different characters will have different rhythms, because the rhythm of the action will affect the personality of the character, and will also affect the natural movement. Whether or not.
Another key to controlling movement is the sense of quality, because all objects are of mass, and the rhythm can represent the quality of the object, which is related to the perception of nature in general.
10. Exaggeration
Animation is basically an exaggerated form of performance. Through the performance of the characters, the mood of the ups and downs is strengthened, making it easier for the audience to integrate into the story and enjoy it. Exaggeration is not only the expansion of the scope of action, but the ingenious and appropriate release of the emotions required by the plot. When designing actions and scripts, how to use the animation itself to easily express the exaggerated advantage to arrange the passage of the plot, the animator's exaggeration in the interpretation of the role is an important key to the animation.
11. Solid drawing
The production of animation, visual performance accounts for a large part, and visual performance requires a very solid foundation of painting and a sense of beauty. Whether it's making traditional animations or computer animations, animators need some basic training in painting to fully represent the images they need in animation.
This principle should be transformed into "beauty" in the light of the changing of the times, rather than "art" (the technique here), whether it is a brush or a computer. And the final picture of the animated face to be presented to the audience is the animated picture in the artist's brain. In this regard, what we have to learn is to raise the level of the animated surface in the brain and try to make the picture, no matter what tool is used.
12. Appeal
Attraction is a condition that needs to be in any art. Animation is like a movie. It contains many different art types. Whether it is music, pictures or plots, it must be matched with each other to interweave the best overall. Picture works.
The most appealing aspect of animation is the imaginative way of expressing images. Almost all of the animations are "created" by the animator and the director's hand. The "degree of freedom" of the picture is extremely high, so the animation always gives people a feeling of imagination, and the most attractive animation. Place. When designing a character, the audience can directly understand the character's attributes in a styling or unique posture, and enhance the audience's impression of the character, such as tall and thin, which can represent different characters.

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